Compatibilized samples sometimes display slightly lower TC with respect to non-compatibilized systems, probably due to a polymeric wrapping around particles that hinders the direct contact among themselves and, as a consequence, the thermal transmission . Is the Subject Area "Composite interfaces" applicable to this article? The application of conductive polymer composites (CPC) in manufacturing a tubular heat exchanger for fluid heating was presented by Glouannec et al. Finally, also differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been considered as a technique for measuring the TC of solid materials. Furthermore, due to the π-π interaction between the surface-coated polydopamine layers, the f-BN particles trend to aggregate more easily than the pristine BN. They concluded that, when the pressure was exercised on the sample, a stress in the longitudinal direction was generated, greater than in the radial direction, by leading to anisotropy of the properties in the tested material. The composite TC is calculated by A hybrid has been conceived as a mixture of two or more raw materials with own intrinsic properties and different shape and size (“A + B + shape + scale”) to enhance or diminish physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, as stiffness or strength, and also to manipulate the percolation limit . As for the PP/f-BN composites, the poor compatibility between the polar f-BN and the nonpolar PP matrix leads to relatively non-uniform dispersion of the fillers. In general, heat transfer takes place through three different mechanisms: convection, conduction, irradiation. In this work, a bio-inspired polydopamine layers were coated onto BN surfaces, and the strong π-π interactions between polydopamine and BN allowed the non-covalent functionalization of BN, as confirmed by the SEM, TGA, FTIR and contact angle analysis. The resulting void appearance shown in SEM images and the sample density lower than the theoretical prediction both confirm the worsening compatibility between the filler and the matrix for the PP/f-BN composites. (1). Polypropylene (PP, Moplen RP344RK) with molecular weight of ~100,000 Dalton and density of 0.9 g/cm3, was manufactured by PolyMirae, Korea. The highest value of the TC was recorded for the prepared mixtures containing the compatibilizer and functionalized filler. Calculations showed that the interconnectivity for talc was particularly greater than that of copper probably due to the alignment of the talc lamellas in the polymeric resin into the flow direction during injection molding; for copper no contact among particles has been found. In the last few decades, great attention has been devoted to polymeric nanomaterials, born from the introduction into the matrix of filler having at least one dimension in the order of 1–100 nm. In a previous study by W. Cheewawuttipong et al. By Maria Alejandra Costantino, Caren Rosales and Valeria Pettarin, By Mohamed F. Ibrahim, Mohamed H. Abdelaziz, Herbert W. Doty, Salvador Valtierra and Fawzy H. Samuel. As shown in Fig 1, the surface of f-BN becomes much rougher compared to the pristine h-BN. The physical consequence is a constriction of flux lines, responsible of the heat resistance best known as “thermal contact resistance” . Nowadays, recent scientific attention has been devoted to hybrid material defined as “a combination of two or more materials in a predetermined geometry and scale, optimally serving a specific engineering purpose”. The transport of heat in non-metals has been well discussed in literature. In fact, besides the filler type and its content, particles shape and size, their orientation and dispersion in polymeric matrix, the adhesion between the filler and the matrix and the thermal properties at the interface symbolized the acting parameters to optimize the desired feature . (a) PP/BN; (b) PP/f-BN; (c) PP/PP-g-ma/f-BN. The thermal diffusivity can be calculated by Parker Formula (Eq. For PP/BN composites, the TC achieves 0.47 W/mK when the filler content increases to 25 wt% (12 vol%), an enhancement of 2.14 times as compared with that of neat PP (0.22 W/mK). (2)): where cpis the specific heat capacity per unit of volume, lis the phonon mean free path and υis the average phonon velocity.  studied the effect of filler functionalization on dispersion and TC of PP-based composites by adding, in the same resin grade, three different chemically treated surfaces (amino-and carboxyl-functionalized, and pristine one) CNTs.
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